Oxide / Nitride / Oxynitride
Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)
Mono- & Polycrystalline
Front- / Back-Contact
Solvent containing processes (VOCs)
Paint processes, adhesive bonding and many other processes employ dissolvents in handling a substance. Generally, water or liquid organic substances with a maximum boiling point of 200 °C are used. Typically, after working with the mixture of substances, the solvent evaporates typically during drying/hardening within a few hours or days. Solvent-contaminated waste gases are formed, which can be malodorous and/or hazardous to health. For the protection of humans and the environment, these gases must be cleaned. The so-called "green chemistry" strives to cut down on the use of toxic solvents that are hazardous to the environment. It requires a process result of the same high quality as that when a "non-green" solvent would be used.
For the colouring of textiles, leather, greases, oils, waxes, stray, wood and paper, often synthetic dyes are used. The most important group is formed by azo dyes, forming the so-called azo bridge (-N=N-). Their multiple chemical compounds are represented in the comprehensive dye and pigment industry. Some azo dyes may release cancer promoting or toxic amines. Their implementation is regulated by the law. The release of dye residues into the environment must be avoided.
In the biotechnological and health industry and for medical research, devices, machines and containers are often sterilised before use in order to prevent the dissemination of micro-organisms, including their resting stages (e.g. spores). During sterilization, also viruses, plasmids and DNA fragments are destroyed. This is carried out with different chemical products, by radiation or the effect of high temperatures. Normally, it is not possible to eliminate 100% of the undesired substances, but a reduction of several times the power of ten can be achieved, which is even more than for disinfection, for the same purpose. Liquids that are used for sterilisation, such as ethylene oxide, must be disposed.
Gas bottle disposal systems for Gas Suppliers
Gas bottles are always labelled with a use-by date, because due to the high diffusion of gas mixtures it cannot be ensured that they remain in the bottle for an unlimited period. Neither can it be guaranteed that after a specific period the original filler mixture is still available in the same composition. Specifically, gas mixtures that are used for the calibration of measuring devices, expire after a specific period of time. Also, the seal-tightness of the pressure container must be checked at regular intervals. Generally, the bottle is returned to the supplier for this purpose. This way, the gas supplier receives an increasing number of full or half-full gas bottles. It is his task to dispose the contents before performing a pressure test and safe refilling. Often, gas bottles with unknown content and uncertain origin or age are scattered around and must be disposed of safely. Several procedures and combinations serve this purpose.
Water treatment for industrial wastewater in general
Water treatment of industrial wastewater and the cleaning of fluids with industrial gas scrubbers must be customised to the respective industrial process. Some processes contain toxic or environmentally hazardous substances which must be treated directly in the industrial company. On the one hand, this could be the case when there is not a municipal installation available, or when a purification system is not able to perform adequately the required treatment procedures for the removal of these substances. On the other hand, some industrial parks or regions use a "Zero Liquid Discharge" approach. According to this strategy, no fluids at all may be emitted by an industrial company, whether they are a hazard to the environment or not. In this case, all fluids are treated on-site by the removal of toxic substances and recycling - or in the case of water – their evaporation.
Nitrification / Denitrification
Nitrification is the transformation of ammonia (NH3) or ammonia-ions (NH4+) to nitrate (NO3−) through biological oxidation. The bacteria participating in this process live on the energy generated during this process. The nitrate is available for plants in the form of nitrogenous mineral fertilizers. In turn, the bacteria, with the help of oxygen, convert the nitrate into nitrogen (N2). This process is called denitrification. The oxygen present in the nitrate is available to the bacteria for their metabolism. Both nitrification and denitrification are used simultaneously or subsequently in purification installations. If the water is not clean enough, too many nutrients enter the downstream when it leaves the purification installation, leading to an excessive fertilisation and lack of oxygen, resulting in the death of the living creatures in the water.
Nitrification and denitrification processes are also used for the purification and decontamination in aquacultures. Particularly, ammoniac-nitrogen levels at 2mg/l are toxic for fish. Also, the petroleum-processing industry generates nitrogenous wastewater which must be treated.
Drinking water and process water supply
The drinking water supply achieves its legally required quality by means of several procedures and process steps, according to the quality of the source water. Mostly, trace substances that have entered the water naturally or by humans, are removed. Based on the changing laws regulating the treatment of drinking water, sometimes downstream cleaning is required when threshold values are lowered. Additionally, process water must adapt to the requirement of the corresponding process. Next to the removal of health-hazardous trace substances, often the electric conductivity of the water is decreased, so ions are removed.
In the domain of niche markets and special processes, centrotherm clean solutions is developing a test phase for new applications in accordance with the specific requirements of our customers. Right from the start we are actively committed to develop an economically solid concept for the safe treatment of waste gas and wastewater flows and / or jointly with a recycling concept for all new processes. We aim at increasing the cost-favourable aspect of the entire process and to accelerate the launching of new processes. This is also valid for niche markets, where global standard solutions for source stream cleaning are not available.
Together with you we develop innovative solutions and procedures, for the management of your core process in an economical and environment-friendly manner.
We carry out projects with the following task definitions:
- Gas treatment in niche markets
- Water treatment in niche markets
- Recycling of valuable materials and special gases
Do you have a special application and do you not really know how to handle it? Due to the enormous possibilities of the chemical industry, this is quite well possible, so some innovative applications may be and also remain special applications. In close cooperation we will find a tailored concept for your requirements.